发布时间:2023-11-30 来源:考研信息 当前位置:首页 > 考研查询 > 考研信息 > 手机阅读




考研英语语法精要 虚拟语气




主句 从句

与现在事实相反 would/情态动词过去式+do were (不分人称)/did

与过去事实相反 would/情态动词过去式+have done had done

与将来事实相反 would/情态动词过去式+do should do


If the doctor had been available, the child could not have died.

There is a real possibility that these animals could be frightened, should there be a sudden loud noise.



Had it not been for the timely investment from the general public, our company would not be so thriving as it is.


Had Paul received six more votes in the last election, he would be our chairman now.



Your math instructor would have been happy to give you a make-up examination had you gone and explained that your parents were ill at the time.


I would have gone to visit him in the hospital had it been at all possible, but I was fully occupied the whole of last week.





desire, advise, recommend, command, direct, order, ask, demand, request, require, insist, maintain, move, propose, prefer, urge, vote。如:

In the past men generally preferred that their wives work in the home.

I move that he be discharged for his serious mistake.


advisable, desirable, insistent, preferable, urgent, appropriate, compulsory, crucial, essential, imperative, important, necessary, obligatory, possible, probable, proper, vital, advised, arranged, commanded, demanded, desired, ordered, proposed, recommended, requested, required, suggested。如:

The board deem it urgent that these files should be printed right away.

It is essential that all these figures be checked twice.


insistence, preference, recommendation, suggestion, proposal, motion, desire, re-quirement, request, order, necessity, importance, regulation, rule, resolution, understanding。如:

John Wagner’s most enduring contribution to the study of Afro-American poetry is his insistence that it be analyzed in a religious, as well as worldly, frame of reference.

They keep telling us it is of utmost importance that our representative be sent to the conference on schedule.



(1)连词but, but that, or, or else;副词otherwise, unfortunately等表示转折假设。如:

A safety analysis would have identified the target as a potential danger. Unfortunately, it was never done.

Victor obviously doesn’t know what’s happened; otherwise he wouldn’t have made such a stupid remark.

(2)介词短语暗含假设条件,常用的有:without, but for, under more favorable conditions等。如:

But for the English examination I would have gone to the concert last Sunday.

(3)intended/meant/hoped/wished/planned或was/were +不定式完成式或had intended/meant/planned/hoped/wished+不定式一般式暗示虚拟语气。如:

I intended to have called on you, but I was busy at that time.


I should have called to make an airline reservation, but I didn’t.



would rather would as soon as though suppose…

had rather would sooner as if supposing…

If only… It is (high) time that…(从句中动词只用过去式)


His wife would rather they didn’t talk about the matter any more.

I’d rather you went by train, because I can’t bear the idea of your being in an airplane in such bad weather.

If I were in a movie, then it would be about time that I buried my head in my hands for a cry.

My father always talks as though he were addressing a public meeting.

(2)If it were not for… (与现在事实相反)

If it had not been for… (与过去事实相反) 相当于but for。如:

If it had not been for his help (= but for his help), we would not have succeeded.

(3)If only…谓语动词视情况选用适当的形式。如:

If only the committee would approve the regulations and put them into effect as soon as possible.

(4)lest/for fear that/in case 从句谓语用(should+)动词原形。如:

The mad man was put in the soft-padded cell lest he injure himself.


Church as we use the word refers to all religious institutions, be they Christian, Islamic, Buddhist, Jewish, and so on.

The business of each day, be it selling goods or shipping them, went quite smoothly.



if only 与 I wish一样,也用于表示与事实相反的愿望,其后所虚拟语气的时态与 wish 后所接时态的情况相同:

If only she had had more courage! 她再勇敢一些就好了。

If only it would stop raining! 雨要是停了就好了。

If only he didn"t drive so fast. 但愿他车没开得那么快。

If only I were [was] better looking. 要是我长得漂亮些就好了。

If only I had listened to my parents! 我要是当时听了父母的话就好了。

If only she would go with me! 她要是愿意和我一道去就好了!

【友情提示】if only 通常独立使用,没有主句。



我们知道由if 引导的条件句有两种形式,一种是真实的条件句,也就说是某事很可能发生,条件是可能存在的,主句中某种情况发生的概率也是很高的。例如If you intend using humor in your talk to make people smile, you must know how to identify shared experiences and problems.(.Text1 )(如果你想在谈话中用幽默来使人发笑,你就必须知道如何识别共同的经历和共同的问题。)

另一种就非真实条件句,通过虚拟语气来表达。例如I would have arrived much earlier if I had not been caught in the traffic.(要不是交通堵塞,我本会来得早一些。)在这句话中,假设“不堵塞”,但是真实情况并不是这样,所以用虚拟语气。一般有6种常见的形式:

1)与现在事实相反的非真实条件句,从句中用一般过去时,主句中用would/could/ should 加动词原形,be 动词的过去式为were.

If you then examined the European national youth teams that feed the World Cup and professional ranks, you would find this strange phenomenon to be ever more pronounced.(,text 1 )(查看为世界杯和专业队输送人才的.欧洲国家青年队,你会发现这一奇怪的现象更加明显。)

2)与过去事实相反的非真实条件句,从句用过去完成时,主句用would/could/should +have done .

If he had played last season,however,he would have been one of 42. ( text3 )(如果他打了上个赛季,他将只是42个(最高的人)中的一个)

3)与将来事实相反的非真实条件句,从句用should do 或 were to do 结构,主句中用 would /could/should 加动词原形。

If you were to examine the birth certificates of every soccer player in ‘s World Cup tournament, you would most likely find a noteworthy quirk: elite soccer players are more likely to have been born in the earlier months of the year than in the later months.(2007 text 1)(如果查看世界杯联赛每个足球运动员的出生证,你很可能发笑一个值得注意的奇怪现象:好的足球运动员都在一年的头几个月而不是后几个月出生。)

4)混合时态的虚拟 指的是主句和从句分别表示两个时态,动词形式依照上述三种形式进行相应的变化。

If he had put all the important files in the safe yesterday, his boss wouldn‘t be scolding him so angrily now.(如果昨天他把所有重要文件都放在保险箱中,他的老板现在也不会这个严厉的说他。)

5)省if将从句中的系动词或助动词提前到主语之前,变成倒装句,考生对这种形式应该理解和掌握。 Had it not for the timely investment from the general public, our company would not be so thriving as it is.( )(如果不是群众投资,我们的公司不会像现在这么兴旺。)

6)用介词或连词表示虚拟。比如with,without, under…condition, but for . And if one received a grape without having to provide her token in exchange at all, the other either tossed her own token at the researcher or out of the chamber, or refused to accept the slice of cucumber.( text 1 )(如果一只猴子甚至没有用石块就能得到葡萄,另一只猴子就会向研究人员扔石头,或者把石头扔出房间,或者拒绝接受一片黄瓜。)